The Materials palette (F6) is where you choose the materials that you will be using in your image such as colors, gradients, patterns, and textures. We will be thoroughly covering the Materials palette in the next lesson.
The Tool Options palette (F4) is where you modify the options for the currently selected tool. As mentioned in earlier lessons, the options in the Tool Options palette change depending on the tool selected. We will be covering the options for each tool when we cover the tool.
The Layer palette (F8) allows you to view, rearrange, group, change transparency, change blend modes, and so on for each layer. We will be covering the Layer palette in lesson 6.
The Histogram palette (F7) is a graph showing how the red, green, blue, greyscale, hue, saturation, and lightness values are distributed in the currently selected image. By analyzing the graph you can decide how to make corrections.
The Overview palette (F9) shows a thumbnail of the currently selected image as well as image information such as width, height, and color depth. The area surrounded by a rectangle is the area of the image that is currently visible. If the entire image is visible then the rectangle will be around the entire thumbnail. When working on large images you can click on the rectangle and, holding down the left mouse button, drag the rectangle to the portion of the image you want to make visible. This is the easiest way to move around in a large image.
The Script Output palette (F3) will display both the actions you take and the results of running scripts. It will also show any errors it had when performing a task. If you are having problems this is a great place to look to see where something went wrong. It is also a great learning tool because you can analyze the step a script performed and reproduce them on your own.
The Brush Variance palette (F11) allows you to set more brush options besides the ones in the Tool Options palette to produce some great effects. You can modify the variances such as fade in, fade out, pressure, altitude, and more.
Last but not least is the Learning Center palette (F10). The Learning Center palette displays tutorials for common tasks. PSP comes with several great tutorials called "Quick Guides". There are also some tutorial writers writing tutorials specifically for the Learning Center palette. I learned how to load these Quick Guides from Suz Shook who has some great Quick Guides you can download and install at PSP 8 Quick Guides.